## Time series analysis

Time series forecasting is a statistical technique used to predict future values based on historically observed data points ordered by time. Widely used in finance, economics, and business, it helps stakeholders anticipate future trends and make informed decisions. A time series is a sequence of data points, measured typically at…

## Triple Exponential Smoothing

Triple Exponential Smoothing, commonly known as the Holt-Winters Method, extends upon Double Exponential Smoothing to address time series data that contains both a trend and a seasonal component. It incorporates three equations to capture the level, trend, and seasonality of a dataset, making it particularly useful for predicting values in…

## Double Exponential Smoothing

Double Exponential Smoothing, also known as Holt’s Linear Exponential Smoothing, is a time series forecasting method that extends Simple Exponential Smoothing. While Simple Exponential Smoothing is best suited for time series without a trend, Double Exponential Smoothing can handle time series data with a trend but no seasonality. The primary…

## Exponential Smoothing

Simple Exponential Smoothing (SES) is a time series forecasting method that is especially suitable for univariate data without a trend or seasonal pattern. It uses weighted averages of past observations to forecast future points. The method is ‘exponential’ because the weights decrease exponentially as observations get older. Key Concept: Smoothing…

## Reinforcement Learning

Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a bit unique. It’s not like supervised learning where we have labeled data to guide the learning. But it’s also not unsupervised learning where the algorithm is left to find patterns on its own. In RL, we don’t give direct answers, but we do give feedback…

## NLP

NLP, or Natural Language Processing, is a field at the intersection of computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics. Its goal is to enable computers to understand, interpret, and generate human languages in a way that is both meaningful and useful. Key Challenges in NLP: Ambiguity: Natural language is often ambiguous,…

## Comparison of Different Clustering Techniques

Here’s the tabular comparison with K-means, Hierarchical Clustering, and DBSCAN in the requested order: Aspect K-means Hierarchical Clustering DBSCAN Clustering Approach Partitioning Agglomerative or Divisive Density-based Shape of Clusters Spherical, equally sized Various shapes (depends on linkage) Arbitrary shapes Number of Clusters Requires specifying K beforehand No predefined K required…

## DBSCAN Clustering

Data clustering is a fundamental technique in the field of data science and machine learning. It involves grouping data points that are similar to each other. While many clustering algorithms exist, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) stands out as a robust method that can identify clusters of…

## Hyperparameters in k-means

k-means clustering, like many machine learning algorithms, has hyperparameters that need to be set prior to running the algorithm. These hyperparameters affect how the algorithm works and can impact the quality of the clustering results. Here are some common hyperparameters in k-means: Number of Clusters (k): Perhaps the most crucial…

## k-Means Clustering

Clustering is one of the most common exploratory data analysis techniques used to get an intuition about the structure of the data. K-means clustering is one of the simplest and most popular unsupervised machine learning algorithms. k-Means Clustering is an algorithm that, given a dataset, will identify which data points belong to…