## Principal Component Analysis Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a dimensionality reduction technique commonly used in data analysis and machine learning. One of its primary objectives is to capture the most variance in the data while reducing the dimensionality of the dataset. Variance is a statistical measure that quantifies the spread or dispersion of…

## Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are fundamental concepts in linear algebra that play a key role in various data science algorithms, notably in dimensionality reduction techniques like Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In simple terms, an eigenvector is a vector that only scales (stretches or compresses) and does not change its direction when…

## Handling Imbalanced datasets

Imbalanced datasets are a common challenge in machine learning, where one class significantly outnumbers the others. This imbalance can lead to biased models that favor the majority class and perform poorly on minority classes. Fortunately, there are several strategies to address this issue and improve the performance of machine learning…

## Handling outliers

Handling outliers is a crucial aspect of data preprocessing in data science projects. Outliers can significantly affect various aspects of data analysis, from basic statistics to the behavior and performance of predictive models. Outliers are data points that deviate significantly from other observations. They can arise due to: Measurement errors…

## Key Steps in Data Preprocessing Pipeline

Introduction In a machine learning project, the quality of the data used is often a more significant determinant of success than the choice of model. Data preprocessing is the process of cleaning and transforming raw data into a format that can be effectively used to train machine learning models. It…

## Handling Missing Values

Handling missing values is a critical step in the data preprocessing phase of building a machine learning model. Missing data can be problematic because most machine learning algorithms require complete datasets to train on. Here are some commonly used techniques to handle missing values: Removing Data: Listwise Deletion: This involves…

## Coefficient of Correlation vs Coefficient of Determination

Coefficient of Correlation: It is the degree of relationship between two variables. Any two variables in this universe can be argued to have a correlation value. If they are not correlated then the correlation value can still be computed which would be 0. The correlation value always lies between -1…

## Multicollinearity

Multicollinearity refers to a situation in which two or more explanatory variables in a multiple regression model are highly linearly related. In other words, one predictor variable can be used to predict the other. This situation poses various problems for the model, the most notable being that it makes it…

## XGBoost

XGBoost, short for “Extreme Gradient Boosting,” is a machine learning algorithm that has taken the data science world by storm. It has been widely recognized for its exceptional performance in various competitions and real-world applications. In this blog post, we’ll explore what makes XGBoost so remarkable and why it’s a…

## Boosting Algorithms

Boosting is a powerful ensemble learning technique that can significantly enhance the performance of machine learning models. Two popular boosting algorithms are AdaBoost and Gradient Boosting, each with its unique strengths and applications. In this blog post, we’ll take a closer look at both AdaBoost and Gradient Boosting to understand…